Centre of Advanced Study in Radio Physics and Electronics
The Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics established in 1949 is the first University department in India engaged in the study and research in Electronics, Communication, Computers, Control, Ionosphere and all branches in Radio Science. The internationally acclaimed research conducted by its founder Prof. Sisir Kumar Mitra, FRS, and his group and the able leadership of his successor, Prof. Jatindra Nath Bhar, FNA, elevated the status of this newly founded Institute to a very high level, so that the University Grants Commission awarded this department a status Centre of Advanced Study in 1963.
At the time of the setting up of the Center of Advanced Study in Radio Physics and Electronics in 1963 the U.G.C. had recommended that the thrust area of the Center be "Radio Wave Propagation and Upper Atmospheric Research". Prof. Bhar, however, was fully aware of the vast potentialities of the newly emerging areas in Electronics and was convinced that in the long term interest of the Institute, these new areas had to be nurtured side by side with studies on the Upper Atmosphere. It was mainly due to his efforts that the Center of Advanced Study was renamed as CAS in Radio Physics and Electronics.
As a result of the creation of the Center, substantial grants, and teaching positions were received by the Department. Prof. Bhar made it very clear to all his colleagues that "the Department was the Center and the Center was the Department" so that whatever additional facilities were created were available to all the faculty of the Department.
Since its inception as a CAS, the teaching and research activities of the Centre expanded manifold. The CAS status is enjoyed by the Institute uninterrupted till March 2010, i.e., over a long period of 47 years: perhaps a unique instance in the country. The next review of the CAS status is to be made soon. Because of the exemplary academic and research excellence, in 2008 the UGC identified this Centre as one of the two Networking Resource Centres in Physical Science and one amongst ten such centres planned to be established in the country.
S.K. MITRA CENTRE FOR RESEARCH IN SPACE ENVIRONMENT
Late Professor Sisir Kumar Mitra, FRS, is the pioneer of radio and space researches in this part of the globe. He established the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics of this University in 1949 with his school of space physicists as its core group. The activities of this Institute were subsequently expanded to cover areas like Solid State Electronics, Computer and System Science, in addition to the Ionosphere and Wave Propagation. In recent years, however, the research interest of the Ionosphere and Wave Propagation Group was limited to some selected areas due to lack of funds and manpower. However, the scientific contributions in those limited areas have been significant and internationally recognized. The University, with the support of Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), proposed to establish a Centre in memory of Late Professor Sisir Kumar Mitra to undertake research in the existing as well as new fields, extending from troposphere to upper atmosphere. Professor R.N.Basu, former Vice Chancellor and Professor A.K.Banerjee, the Honorable Vice Chancellor, formally approached the Chairman, ISRO for providing financial support to the Centre. After prolonged interactions with Advisory Committee on Space Research (ADCOS) of ISRO four research proposals on the following topics with a total budget of Rs. 75.2 lakhs were sanctioned by ISRO Headquarters under the umbrella of the proposed Centre:
(1) Atmospheric Electricity
(2) Space Weather
(3) Lower Atmospheric Chemistry
(4) Radio Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere
Late Dr. A.P. Mitra, FRS, played the key role in formulating the scientific programme of the Centre and extended his support as the then Chairman of ADCOS, ISRO. The Centre was formally inaugurated on 12 March 2002. The Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics was chosen as the nodal department to organize the Centre which will be inter-departmental in nature, involving the University departments like Radio Physics and Electronics, Physics, Chemistry, Atmospheric Sciences and Marine Science.
The first phase of the ISRO funded projects ended in March 2007. A set of proposals was submitted to ISRO HQ for the second phase and four projects were approved with the funds totaling Rs. 95.48 lakhs for the period 2007-2010. Apart form the projects approved directly by ISRO HQ, four other projects sanctioned by SAC, ISRO and CAWSES India, ISRO, have been carried out at the Centre. Through the implementation of these projects, the Centre participated in a number of ISRO supported national programmes such as, GAGAN, CAWSES, Megha Tropiques Mission, Ka-band Satellite Propagation, and the international programmes namely, SCINDA and COSMIC Satellite.
ISRO has selected University of Calcutta for financial support under the Space Science Promotion Scheme. The selection was based on the past and present activities in the area of space science mainly pursued at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics. The funding comprises of (i) one-time grant for equipment, (ii) support for two faculty positions for five years, and (iii) three M. Tech. Fellowships for five years. Presently, two Assistant Professors are working in the department and three M. Tech Fellows are receiving their fellowships under this programme.
The Centre of Millimeter-wave Semiconductor Devices and Systems (CMSDS)
The Centre of Millimeter-wave Semiconductor Devices and Systems (CMSDS) has been set up as a joint venture of DRDO and Calcutta University with a sanctioned fund of Rs. 49.5 crores.
The relentless effort of Prof. S. K. Roy made the establishment of the centre possible in 2006.
The major objective of the centre is to design & develop Millimeter-wave sources and systems for important applications in advanced sensors for Missile Guidance and Seekers to be used for defence and civilian purpose.
The centre is being managed by a two-tier system viz. Governing Council and Executive Council comprising members from University of Calcutta and DRDO.
Govt. of West Bengal awarded a plot of land measuring 3.73 acres at Nayabad (Purba Jadavpur), to University of Calcutta free of cost for the establishment of CMSDS. Another 10 acres of land has been allotted by Govt. of West Bengal to DRDO in the R&D Hub at Baruipur, South 24 parganas where clean room and fabrication facilities of CMSDS will be created.
The construction of the building and clean room facility in the above mentioned two sites will be done by DRDO on a turn-key basis.
The initial phase of the centre as per MOU between DRDO and CU will expire on 8th March 2010. In the last Governing Council meeting held on 14th July 2009, chaired by Hon'ble Vice Chancellor, University of Calcutta, the extension of MOU for a further period of three years was approved.
Break up of sanctioned fund of Rs. 4850 Lakhs
Amount (Rs. In Lakhs)
Equipment and Machinery
Air-conditioning & clean-room facility
Pay & allowance (for 3 years)
Movement of personnel
Movement of stores
Training / Research / R&D consultancy
Present staff of CMSDS, University of Calcutta :
Director : Prof. J. P. Banerjee, IRPE, CU
Research Staff : Three Scientists and three research fellow.
Administrative staff :One Administrative Officer and one Accounts Officer.
Ancillary staff :Seven
List of research publications from the centre
Mobile space charge effect in 4H Silicon Carbide IMPATT diodes
S. Mukherjee, S. Banerjee, J. Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee Proc. of IWPSD, 2007, IIT (Mumbai) & TIFR, India, pp. 268-272, 2007
Large signal model to simulate the high frequency properties of optically controlled IMPATT devices J. P. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, I. Ali and S. K. Ray Proc. of IVth International Conference on Radio Science (ICRS), Jodhpur, India, 2008
Si / Si1-xGex DDR IMPATTs as a potential source for Millimeterwave applications,
S. Banerjee, D. Chakraborty and J. P. Banerjeeproc. of national conference on device, intelligent systems and communication & networking (aec-disc), asansol, India, pp. 187-192, 2008.
Effect of punch through on the breakdown characteristics of 4H-SiC IMPATT Diode
S. Banerjee and J. P. Banerjee, Proc. of International Conference on Microwave 2008, University of Rajasthan, India, pp. 59-62, 2008
Direct optical injection locking of a Ka-band Si SDR IMPATT diode for low phase noise
A. Das, M. Mukherjee, P. Bhattacharyya, N. C. Mondal, M. K. Pandit, J. P. Banerjeeand S. K. Roy. Proc. of International symposium ISM 2008, held in Bangalore, India
Effect of LASER radiation on Si (100) p-n junction : Simulation studies and experimental realization. M. Mukherjee, N. C. Mondal, P. Bhattacharyya, J. P. Banerjeeand S. K. Roy
Proc. of International Symposium on Microwave (ISM) 2008, Bangalore, India
“MM-wave properties of photo-illuminated double drift Indium Phosphide IMPATTs at elevated temperature”, Moumita Mukherjee, J. Mukherjee, J. P. Banerjee and S.K. Roy,Proceedings of Int. Conf. IEEE-ICMMT, China, p. 334. 2008
A proposed theoretical model of impact ionization rate under carrier degeneracy considering different scattering phenomena. – Soumen Banerjee & J. P. Banerjee, Proc. of International Conference on Microwave -08, University of Rajasthan, India. pp. 708-711, 2008.
“Mobile space-charge effect on Terahertz properties of Wz-GaN based DDR IMPATT oscillators”, Moumita Mukherjee, S. Banerjee and J. P. Banerjee, CODEC 2009, Kolkata, India, December 2009.
“MM-wave performance of DDR IMPATTs based on cubic SiC”, Moumita Mukherjee, S. Banerjee and J. P. Banerjee,XVth IWPSD-2009, SSPL & Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India, December, 2009.
“DDR Pulsed IMPATT sources at MM-wave window frequency: high power operation mode”, Moumita Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee, IEEE EDS Int. Conf. on IEEE Micro/Nano Devices, Structures and Systems (MiNDSS 2010), Tamilnadu, India.
Studies on the performance of Wz-GaN DDR IMPATT diode at optimum bias current for THz frequencies”, S. Banerjee, Moumita Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee, IEEE EDS Int. Conf. on IEEE Micro/Nano Devices, Structures and Systems (MiNDSS 2010), Tamilnadu, India.
“Temperature Distribution in a Mesa Structure of Si-IMPATT diode on a Semi-infinite copper heat sink”, B. Pal, A Acharya, Arijit Das and J. P. Banerjee, National Conference MDCCT, 2010.
“Simulation of the circuit characteristics of a millimeter-wave pulsed IMPATT oscillator embedded in a reduced – height cavity”, Arijit Das, Diptadip Chakraborty, J. Sanyal and J. P. Banerjee, National Conference MDCCT, 2010.
“Effects of impurity bumps on static and dynamic characteristics of group IV-IV SiC-based IMPATT at Ka-band, Moumita Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee, National Conference MDCCT, 2010.
“Terahertz Performance of Wz-GaN based DDR IMPATT Devices”, Soumen Banerjee, Moumita Mukherjee, Soma Rani Karan, Priyanka Roy Chowdhury, Payel Roy, Ankita Choudhury, J. P. Banerjee, National Conference MDCCT, 2010.
“DDR Pulsed IMPATT sources at MM-wave window frequency: high power operation mode”, Moumita Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee, “International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology” Korea, Vol 16, March 2010.
Studies on the performance of Wz-GaN DDR IMPATT diode at optimum bias current for THz frequencies”, S. Banerjee, Moumita Mukherjee and J. P. Banerjee, “International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology” Korea, Vol 16, March 2010.
Activities of CTIF-India
On December 7, 2007, a Memorandum of Agreement (MoA) was signed between the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, India and Center for TeleInFrastuktur, CTIF, University of Aalborg, Denmark, in the area of Wireless Communication Technology. The occasion saw the launching of Center for TeleInFrastuktur (India), or CTIF-India. Besides the parent body, this is the second CTIF established after the CTIF (Italy) in the University of Rome.
Erasmus Mundus Program with Aalborg and Other Universities
Erasmus Mundus, (External Cooperation Window, Lot 11, Asia Regional) is a program to promote the exchange of students, scholars and faculty between partner universities of Europe and Asia. Funded and supported by the European Commission,, the program is designed to fund exchanges between 8 European Partner Universities and 11 Asian universities. The list of universities is as follows:
European Universities: Denmark: Aalborg University (AAU), Germany: Flensburg University (FU), Netherlands: Delft University of Technology (DUT), Italy: University of Rome "Tor Vergata" (URTV) , Greece: National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), Croatia: University of Zagreb (UZ), Portugal: University of Aveiro (UA), Spain: University of Malaga (UMA)
Asian Universities: Bangladesh: Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET), Bangladesh: Asian University for Women, Chittagong (AuW), Bangladesh: Chittagong University, Chittagong (CU), Bhutan: Royal University of Bhutan (RUB), Nepal: Inst. of Eng., Tribhuvan University (TU), Pakistan: Mehran University of Technology (MUET), Afghanistan: Kabul University (KU), India: University of Calcutta (UC), India: Sinhgad Institute of Technology (SIT), Indonesia: Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), Thailand: Mae Fah Luang University (MAFU).
The main goal of the mobility for life is the cross-fertilization and the exchange of teaching and research experience that can become an extended platform for cooperation between Asia and Europe in the future.
There were several thematic groups within this Erasmus Mundus program, and the particular group related to the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics is “Telecommunications and wireless technologies”
Applications were invited from students and faculties in December 2009-January 2010 window, and several students and faculty members submitted their applications. The final results are awaited.
UGC NETWORKING RESOURCE CENTRE IN PHYSICAL SCIENCES
The recommendation of the MHRD task force for Basic Scientific research in Universities as approved by the Government of India stated that " There is a need to create 10 networking centres in basic sciences (two centres each in Physical Science, Chemical Science, Life Science, Materials Science and Mathematical Science) in leading departments of Universities in different parts of the country to promote collaborative research, access to advanced facilities and imparting training in frontier areas. These centres should be supported on a long term basis in a substantial manner to enable them to realize internationally competitive status. The system of both Winter and Summer Schools must be supported. Each subject area of basic sciences may offer up to ten programs a year. There should be provision for Visiting Fellowships for faculties within the country.
The University Grants Commission accepted the guidelines proposed by the Empowered Committee for establishing the UGC Networking Centres. It was decided to identify three UGC networking Centres during the year 2007-2008, one each in Life Sciences, Physical Sciences and Chemical Sciences.
Accordingly, proposals were invited from SAP departments indicating the areas of Summer/Winter schools, types of training, available infrastructure, laboratories, equipment etc as well as expertise of faculties, and awards and honours received by them. The proposals were considered by the Empowered Committee and after their scrutiny Centre of Advanced Study in Radio Physics and Electronics (CASRPE), University of Calcutta, was invited to make a presentation at the UGC office, New Delhi, on November 20, 2007. The Empowered Committee advised the CASRPE to submit a revised proposal specifying the number of intakes in each type of training, proposed plan of work, etc.
The revised proposal submitted by CASRPE was given careful examination by the Empowered Committee, who decided to invite the representatives once again to meet them for further discussions. The date of the meeting was February 5, 2008. In the meeting the Empowered Committee informed that the Department of RPE has been selected as the Networking Centre. It is to be noted that this department is the sole Centre in Physical Science in the country.
The Centre will receive a fund of Rs. 5.00 crores for a period of 5 years.
Apart from holding summer/winter schools (~ 10 in 5 years) on well defined topics for faculties and researchers, the Centre will impart short term training to Ph.D and postdoctoral workers from other institutions of the country and allow them to share the expertise, equipment, internet, library and other facilities available in the department. The Faculties in the department will also advise fresh Ph.D. holders to initiate research programmes in emerging areas and help them train new Ph.D. workers. Students pursuing M.Sc., B. Tech and M. Tech courses will be given summer and vacational training. The Centre also plans to hold workshops in north eastern regions.
A website and a photobrochure are to be developed giving details of faculties, equipment and other facilities available, areas of training, topics of summer/winter schools, application formats for interested persons, etc.
The complete list of academic programmes under the UGC-NRCPS is given in Annexure XII.
A few Ph.D. workers and faculties also visited the Centre and discussed their problems with the mentors.
Centre for Research and Training in Microwaves & Millimetrewaves
Microwaves and Millimeter waves are radio waves of wavelength in the range of 100 mm to 1mm. These waves were first put into practical use during World War II. Rapid development in various fields of Electronic Engineering thereafter has led to many new applications, in recent years, in the field of Communication, Information-highways, Instrumentation, Remote Sensing and Weather forecasting etc.
Keeping these application potentials in view, Department of Electronics, Govt. of India, under the Technology Development Programme of National Radar Council had initiated projects of R & D nature at the Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, in the area of Microwaves and Millimeterwaves during 1980s. These covered studies related to wave propagation and remote sensing as part of the technology development programme of DOE. Subsequently with further financial support from other funding agencies, which include AICTE, MHRD, DST, DRDO, ADA, UGC and TISCO, different activities were undertaken in the form of delivering electronic hardware, system fabrication and installation at the user's premises and feasibility studies of various propagation impairments related to communication, radar, radiometry and remote sensing.
To sustain and propagate all these R&D activities in millimeterwave/microwave technology in the country, the need for creating scientific and technical manpower in the field was felt. In view of this, DOE, Govt. of India, offered Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics, University of Calcutta, to undertake a Training Programme in Millimeterwave Technology, for a five year period commencing from 1988. Undertaking the programme was possible because an infrastructure worth about Rs. 3 crores had already been developed with funds from various agencies. It is important to note that the programme of this type was the first of its kind in Eastern India.
Under this Programme, expert manpower and a resource group in this area have been developed and a number of consultancy jobs have been extended to the Defence Sectors, Department of Telecommunication, Department of Space, Department of Science and Technology. Further, a number of products developed through this Programme are used in Atmospheric Science.
During the last five years, Institute of Radiophysics and Electronics has organized several Refresher Courses and a Workshop, mainly on Microwave, Millimetrewave and Optical Communication, under the Training Programme. A one-year PG Diploma course on Microwave and Millimeterwave Technology has been launched but had to be held in abeyance after one batch of students passed out due to some administrative problems. The University of Calcutta with the concurrence from the Govt. of West Bengal, has decided to convert the Training Programme to a permanent centre. The Govt. of W.B. has decided to continue funding the Programme so that the Diploma Course is set to be revived. It is also being planned to upgrade the Diploma Course to full-fledged 4-semester M. Tech. in Microwave and Millimeterwave Engineering.
In consideration of the importance of microwaves and milimetrewaves and the expertise and infrastructure available in the department, the Government of west Bengal made a decision to create a permanent centre entitled Centre for Research and Training in Microwaves and Millimetre waves in the Institute. At present two existing Scientists working in the Training Programme are absorbed as faculties in the department. The Centre has One Research Fellow, one technical assistant and one Office Assistant.
The Centre started its activity in July 2008. A one day workshop entitled Horizons of Microwave & Millimetrewave Engineering & Research (HOMMER) was held on August 22, 2008 [see list of speakers and topics in Annexure VIII]. The Centre is planning to introduce an M. Tech programme in Radio Physics and Electronics with specialization in Microwaves and Lightwaves.
National MEMS Design Centre
The National Program of Smart Microstructures and Micro Systems (NPMASS) coordinated by the Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA), Govt. of India, have taken an initiative to augment MEMS Design activities in the country. In this endeavour IITs and IISc have been identified as the resource centres for mentoring a few reputed institutions to cultivate and expand the MEMS design activities. The Coordinator for East and North Eastern Regions, Prof. Tarun Bhattacharyya of IIT-Kharagpur, proposed to include this Institute as one of the Design Centres, and requested us to submit our plan of activities.
The faculties of the department welcomed the proposal and a plan was sent accordingly. Subsequently about sixty locations have been identified to establish MEMS Design Centre of which our Institute has been included in the list as Tier II Centre. The news of the inclusion of our Institute in the programme was conveyed in the DC meeting held on April 08, 2009, in which the members welcomed the decision. It was also resolved that our M. Tech in Radio Physics and Electronics as well as in VLSI Design would be revised to include both theoretical and design work related to MEMS Design.
The following certificate was furnished by the Department/ University for establishment of the Centre.
I/We agree that •
A National MEMS Design Centre (NMDC), will be established as a common facility at this Institute to install the software tools provided by National Program on Micro And Smart Systems (NPMASS) for the benefit of users from the region. The name of the funding agency would be appropriately displayed in front of this facility.
NMDC will initiate steps for utilizing the software tools in related course work at the Institute/ University/ college subject to the academic process of approval.
The Coordinator certified below will be responsible to provide the Annual Report at the end of every financial year, containing information on the utilization of all software tools supplied by NPMASS to the Project Director, NPMASS with a copy to Dr. K.J. Vinoy (firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com), the project coordinator from IISc.
Coordinators from this Institute will make a presentation at the annual meeting as required by NPMASS.
This Institute/university agrees to allow the Coordinator listed below to attend all annual review and technical events organized by NPMASS. In case of unavoidable circumstances an alternate will be sent to attend these events. The travel expenses will be met by NPMASS.
I/We certify that the coordinator and other faculty mentioned below has research interest in the area of relevance to NPMASS, and will ensure proper utilization of all facilities and software provided under this activity.
I/We agree to abide by the terms and conditions of the NPMASS and certify that basic necessary facilities including Lab space and the necessary hardware accessories for installing software tools for the proposed work are available and the same will be extended to the Coordinators.
I/We agree to ensure that at least one BE/B.Tech./MSc project will be carried out each year with emphasis on design and analysis. Summary and other details of these will be included in the Annual reports of this NMDC.
I/We agree that this institute would facilitate external researchers from other interested institutes (academic or National Labs subject to individual software licensing conditions) to use the design tools.
I/We certify that in case the present Coordinators are not available for any reason to continue the work on the facilities, alternative arrangements will be made to employ suitable person/persons.
Activities till February 28, 2010
The infrastructure and equipment for this program was provided by the RPE through the UGC-NRC Program. The software components were provided through the NPMASS program.
Currently the MEMS design center is housed at the Sisir Mitra Bhavan, Rajabazar Technology campus. There are three high-end desktop computers that hosts the MEMS design software. Several faculty members, B.Tech students as well as M. Tech students are directly involved in this program.
Three Desktop computers have been procured and installed. One of them will act as a server. The machines have the following configurations:
Quad Core 2.66 GHz Intel processor, Graphics Card with 1GB memory, 2x2GB RAM, 250GB Hard Drive, DVD Writer, 22-inch high resolution TFT monitor (Samsung). The operating system for all machines is WinXP.
MEMS Design software
The University of Calcutta has been provided with the software Intellisuite and Comsol. Coventorware has not been provided at this stage. Comsol was successfully installed at RPE MEMs design center in December, 2009, and currently both B. Tech and M. Tech students are using this software. Intellisuite was installed in February 2010, and currently the students are working with the vendor to work out a few technical issues.
Names and research topics of students/staff using these facilities
Staff members involved in the MEMs Design Center, at the present moment, are :
Prof. P. K. Basu
Prof. Susanta Sen
Dr. Anirban Bhattacharyya
Dr. Soumya Pandit
Current students utilizing MEMS facilities:
M. Tech Student: Subhadip Bhaumik
B. Tech Students: Dip Prakash Samajdar,
Pranay Kanti Poddar
The M. Tech. and B. Tech projects of the above mentioned students are based on the design and implementation of MEMs devices, and will cover both the design of MEMs devices using COMSOL and INTELLISUITE as well as fabrication of simple MEMs structures. They are currently in their third (for M. Tech) and fifth (for B. Tech) semesters respectively and will complete their projects by the middle of 2010. Since they are early in their respective research programs, they are currently involved in understanding the fundamentals of MEMs devices and in getting acquainted with the design tools.
A two-day workshop was organized by IIT Kharagpur in the month of January 2010 on the design of MEMs devices. From the department of Radiophysics and Electronics, faculty member Dr Soumya Pandit, and M. Tech student Subhadip Bhaumik attended the workshop.